In this paper originally published in 2008, Dr. Haja Mohideen (Associate Professor) and Shamimah Mohideen (Lecturer) from the International Islamic University of Malaysia evaluate the impact of specific words, key terms, phrases and names (used in internet media) in propagating Islamophobia. Eleven years later, this paper is as relevant as ever  in providing a perspective on how things have progressed, regressed, stayed the same and even worsened along the same tangents of intolerance that mark the widespread, unquestioned legitimization and acceptance of Islamophobia at the level of ordinary language. Given that the paper was produced more than a decade ago, it engages with basic definitions, historical context and background information as well as multiple citations from media outlets and people of great influence from the 2000s era. In doing so, the paper reveals how there is a linear and constantly escalating pattern of perceptions grounded in ordinary language used in the media to intensify Islamophobic sentiments with certain keywords, phrases and names contextualized and consistently stressed upon to perpetuate animosity towards Muslims through a process of toxic othering that on the surface appears to be subtle, unassuming and neutral.

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